Lizard Has One-Way Breathing Hints at How Dinosaurs Breathed

Air flows only one way through its lungs—other than the American alligator, it’s the only other known reptile found to have this trait.

That’s surprising, because the unidirectional airflow of birds was thought to have evolved due to the high-oxygen demands of flight: Instead of being partially filled with stale, depleted air like human lungs, avian lungs contain air with a much higher average oxygen content and are much more efficient at getting oxygen to the blood.

So this method of breathing was generally considered to be unique to both warm-blooded animals and birds.

That changed in 2010, when Colleen Farmer of the University of Utah and colleagues found that alligators breathe one way.

Now, Emma Schachner, a postdoctoral researcher in Farmer’s lab, has added another species to that list.

“Finding this trait in a [cold-blooded] lizard means that warm-bloodedness and unidirectional airflow have no relationship whatsoever,” Schachner said.

As I Live and Breathe

When humans or other mammals breathe, the air flows through the same lung passages during both an inhale and an exhale. As we inhale, the air flows in through our nose and mouth and down through the windpipe, where it splits and flows into a bronchi, or passageway, that leads to each lung.

The airways divide and divide again, each time getting smaller and smaller. Eventually, the air makes it to tiny alveolar sacs, where oxygen travels from the air into the bloodstream.

courtesy: NGC

Tags: Ngc, Lizard

How to reset root MySQL

If you have forgotten MySQL root password and have root access to linux system follow the below steps.

  • Stop the MySQL server process as root users using command
$ sudo service mysql stop
  • Start MySQL serve rin safe mode with skip grant table command
$ sudo mysqld_safe —skip-grant-tables —skip-networking &
If it throughs any error saying mysqld folder not found. Create the folder
$ sudo mkdir -p /var/run/mysqld
  • login with MySQL server using command, it won't ask for password.
$ mysql -u root -p
  • Once logged in follow below MySQL sql query to change new password
mysql> use mysql;
​mysql> update user set authentication_string=password('NEWPASSWORD') where user='root';
​mysql> flush privileges;
​mysql > quit
  • Now stop MySQL server using kill command
$ killall mysqld_safe
  • Start MySQL server using default service and login with new password.
$ sudo service mysql start  


$ sudo /etc/init.d/mysql start

Also can be reset using temporary file using below steps

  1. Kill/Stop running MySQL server first
$ sudo  kill `cat /mysql-data-directory/`


$ sudo killall mysqld
  1. Create a temporary file (init_mysql.tmp) with following sql with new password in place of "MyNewPassword" in current folder.
    1. For MySQL 5.7.6 and later:
      ALTER USER 'root'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyNewPassword';
    2. For MySQL 5.7.5 and earlier:
      SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('MyNewPassword');
  2. Start MySQL server using temporary file created in previous step.
$ mysqld --init-file=/home/me/init_mysql.tmp &
  1. After the server has started successfully delete the temporary file /home/me/init_mysql.tmp
  2. Now login in to MySQL server with the pemoprary password give in file and reset using the below SQL commands
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET authentication_string = PASSWORD('MyNewPass'), password_expired = 'N'     WHERE User = 'root' AND Host = 'localhost';
  1. Once set restart the MySQL server and all done.

Tags: MySQL, Reset Password